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Background: Psydrax subcordata (DC) Bridson (Rubiaceae) shows a vast range of pharmacological activities as evident in its folkloric use with little information on its toxicity. The toxic effect of methanol extract of P. subcordata on the kidney biomarkers, structure and haematological parameters were determined using male Swiss albino mice.
Methods: Two groups of mice consisting of three mice each were administered with a single oral dose of 2000mg/kg and 5000mg/kg to determine acute toxicity. Forty mice (n = 10/group) were treated orally with distilled water, 250mg/kg b.w of extract, 500mg/kg b.w of extract and 1000mg/kg b.w of extract for 28 days. Lethality/mortality, haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were determined.
Results: The result of the acute study reveals that the LD50 is more than 5000mg/kg as no death was recorded in the animals. The biochemical parameters reduce with increase in dose same as the haematological parameters, except for the WBC which increases as the dose increases. The monocyte and eosinophils levels remain unchanged. The histopathological analysis of the kidney reveals vascular congestion with increase in dose.
Conclusion: P. subcordata extract causes increasing renal and liver histological deterioration as the doses increases, though no mortality was recorded. Thus, higher doses of the extract are not safe especially when administered for prolonged duration orally.
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