Main Article Content
Background: Alloxan induced diabetes is a form of insulin dependent diabetes that occurs as a result of administration of alloxan to animals. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the hypoglycaemic potentials of Cocos nucifera and Elaeis guineensis oils and their effects when combined concurrently with metformin on alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rat.
Methods: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) were extracted using the hot extraction process. Diabetes was induced in the rats with alloxan and the blood glucose level was determined using a fine test glucometer.
Results: The result of the analysis revealed that VCO and PKO yielded 15.75 % and 13.50 % w/w oil, saponification values of 267.712 ± 0.07 mgKOH/g and 361.377 ± 1.69 mgKOH/g and acid value of 0.804 ± 0.09 mgKOH/g and 11.088 ± 0.09 mgKOH/g, respectively. The hypoglycaemic result revealed that the daily dose of PKO was able to cause a reduction in mean blood glucose level relative to negative control, bringing blood glucose level down 196 mg/dL within 7 days of administration. On the other hand, VCO drastically brought down glucose level but could not reduce it to the normal level within 14 days.
Conclusion: Therefore, the concomitant administration of VCO and PKO with metformin showed synergistic and antagonistic property, respectively.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Ighodaro O, Adeosun A, Akinloye O. Alloxan induced diabetes, a common model for evaluating the glycemic control potential of therapeutic compounds and plants extracts in experimental studies. Medicina 2017; 53: 365-374.
Sircar NN. Medicinal plants. The Eastern Pharmacist 1982; 29(291): 49-52
Yuan H, Ma Q, Ye L, Piao G. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products. Molecules 2016; 21(5): 559-577.
Koparde AA, Doijad RC, Magdum CS. Natural Products in Drug Discovery, In: Perveen S. Al-Taweel A (eds.) Pharmacognosy - Medicinal Plants, 2019. IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82860. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/pharmacognosy-medicinal-plants/natural-products-in-drug-discovery.
Maitra A, Abbas AK. Endocrine system. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease (7th edn). , Philadelphia: Saunders. 2005, 1156-1226.
Baynest H. Classification, pathology, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes and metabolism 2015; 6(5): 2-9.
Seino Y, Nanjo K, Tagima N, Kadowaki T, Kashiwagi A, Araki E, Ito C, Inagaki N, Iwamoto Y, Kasuga M, Hanafusa T, Haneda M, Ueki K. Report of the Committee on the classicication and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Investigation 2010; 1(5): 212-228.
Sanhueza L, Durruty P, Vargas C, Vignolo P, Elgueta K. Diabetes Mellitus: A Group of Genetic-Based Metabolic Diseases. In: Khan, J, Hsieh, P. (eds.) Cellular Metabolism and Related Disorders, 2019. IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.89924.
Youdim A. Nutrient-drug interactions. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional /nutritional-disorders/nutrition-general-considerations/nutrient-drug-interactions.
Maidin N, Ahmad,N. Protective and antidiabetic effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on blood glucose concentration in alloxan induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015; 7(10): 57- 60.
Schmittdiel JA, Gopalan A, Lin MW, Banerjee S, Chau CV, Adams AS. Population health management for diabetes: Health care system level approaches for improving quality and addressing disparities. Current Diabetes Rapports 2017; 17(5): 31.
Agarwal, R. Extraction process of virgin coconut oil. MOJ Food Processing and Technology, 2017; 4(2): 54-56.
Ezeoha SL, Akubuo CO, Ani AO. Indigenous design and manufacture of palm kernel oil screw press in Nigeria: problems and prospects. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Research 2017; 7(2): 67 – 82.
Nkafaniya I, Maina H, Osemeahon S, Modibbo U. Percentage oil yield and physicochemical properties of different groundnut species (Arachis hypogaea). African Journal of Food Science 2010; 4(7): 418 – 421.
Lorke D. A New Approach to Practical Acute Toxicity Testing. Archives of Toxicology, 1983; 54: 275 – 287.
Kumar G, Lakshmi N, Deena C, Sekhar V, Nikhitha N, Begum H, Bhavani V, Kumar P. Determination of the quality of coconut oils (unrefined grade) and (refined grade) produced from three survey regions of East Godavari District, India. Asian Journal of Applied Chemical Research 2018; 2(4):1-8.
Odoom W, Edusei VO. Evaluation of saponification value, iodine value and insoluble impurities in coconut oils from Jomoro District of the Western Region of Ghana. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences 2015; 3(5): 494 – 499.
Husni A, Purwanti D, Ustadi. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats treated with sodium alginate from Sargassum crassifolium. Journal of Biological Sciences 2016; 16: 58-64.
GrphPad Prism: User’s Guide. Version 5.0 for windows. GraphPad Software, La Jolla California, USA. www.graphpad.com.
Ebong AS, Eseyin OA, Etim EI, Anah VU, Udobre AS, Johnson EC, Charles GE. Effect of Telfairia Occidentalis on the pharmacokinetic parameters and efficacy of dihydroartemisinin and amodiaquine combination therapy. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science 2019; 8(11): 1 – 20.
Ihediwa V, Ndukwu M. Properties, machines and processes for industrial extraction and refining of palm kernel oil: a brief guide. NIEA conference proceedings 2017; 38: 131-139.
Manikantan MR, Arivalagan M, Mathew AC, Hebbar KB. Effect of processing parameters on recovery of hot process virgin coconut oil and co-product utilization. Journal of Plantation Crops 2015; 43(2): 21 – 27.
Ayoola AA, Anawe PAL, Ojewumi ME, Amaraibi RJ. Composition of the properties of palm oil and palm kernel oil biodiesel in relation to the degree of unsaturation of their oil feedstocks. International Journal of Applied and natural Sciences 2017; 5(3): 1 – 8.
Idu M, Ovuakporie-Uvo O, Omoregie ES, Omosigho M. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and phyto-nutritional composition of cold and hot press coconut oils. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2018; 5(1): 56 – 66.
Rosenthal A, Pyle DI, Niranjan K. Aqueous and enzymatic processes for edible oil extraction. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 1996; 19(6): 402 – 420.
NAFDAC, 2019. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control. Fats and oils regulations, 1-24. Available at: https://www.nafdac.gov.ng/wp-content/uploads/Files/ Resources/Regulations/New_Draft_Regulations/Fats-and-oils-Reguations-2019-clean.pdf
Prapun R, Cheetangde N, Udomranti S. Characterization of virgin coconut oil (VCO) recovered by different techniques and fruit maturities. International Food Research Journal 2016; 23(5): 2117-2124.
Atasie V. Akinhami T. Extraction, compositional studies and physico-chemical characteristics of palm kernel oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2009; 8(6): 880-803.
Amira O, Babalola O. Oyediran M. Physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2014; 6(5): 205 – 207.
Ghani N, Chanip A, Hwa P, Ja’afar F, Yasin H. Usman A. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and metal contents of virgin coconut oil produced by wet and dry processes. Food Science and Nutrition 2018; 6(5): 1298-1306.
Codex Stan – Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
Available at: www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/en/
AOCS Official Method Cd 3d-63 – Sampling and analysis of commercial fats and oils; Acid value, Reapproved 2009. Available at: www.global.ihs.com/doc_detail.cfm? document_name=AOCS%20CD%203D%2D63&item_s_key=00572831
Stanley P, Prince M, Menon VP. Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000; 70(1): 9-15.
Bajaj S, Khan A. Antioxidants and diabetes. Indian Journal Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2012; 16(2): 267–271.
Silalahi J, Rosidah PE, Satria D. Hypoglycaemikc effect of hydrolysed palm kernel oil in rats. Der Pharma Chemica,2016; 8(20): 182-186.
Joseph SA, Theophilus FC, Dominic EA, Rita DA, Kwaw MA, Kofi A, Eric W, George KA, Alfred AA, Henry BD. Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Adenia lobata Engl. (Passifloraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. African. Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine 2013; 10(5): 386–393.
Iranloye B, Oludare G, Olubiyi M. Anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in alloxan induced diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus 2013; 3(4): 221-226.
Kirpichnikov D, Mcfalane S, Sower J. Metformin: An update. Annals of International Medicine, 2002; 137(1): 25-33.
Graham R, Hardie DG. Pearson ER. The mechanisms of action of metformin. Diabetologia, 2017; 60(9): 1577–1585.
Babu A, Veluswamy S, Arena R, Guazzi M, Larvie C. Virgin coconut oil and its potential cardioprotective effects. Postgraduate Medicine, 2014; 126(7): 76-83.
Dumitrescu R, Mehedintu C, Briceag I, Purcarea V, Hudita D. Metformin-clinical pharmacology in PCOs. Journal of Medicine and Life 2015; 8(2): 187-192.