Nymphaea lotus and Phyllanthus amarus: Thin Layer Chromatography, Alkaloidal Fractions and Antimicrobial Activities on Multidrug Resistant Organisms Associated with Middle Ear Infection
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Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (ELEPA) and Nymphaea lotus (ELENL) on isolates from otitis media were evaluated using conventional methods, thin layer chromatography and disc diffusion technique. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, terpenes, deoxy-sugar, phenolic and cardiac glycosides were phyto-constituents detected in ELEPA and ELENL. Two alkaloidal components (R1 0.5, 0.3) were detected in ELENL, while only one alkaloidal component of 0.65 retention factors were detected in ELEPA. The results also showed that between 121 (53.7%) to 134 (59.6%), 136 (60.4%) to 153 (68.0%) and 154 (68.4%) to 168 (74.7%) of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to the ELEPA (decoction) and ELENL (decoction) at 20 mgml-1, 40 mgml-1 and 80 mgml-1 concentrations, respectively, Equal ratio by volume of ELEPA and ELENL (concoction) exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity with relatively higher zones of inhibition against all the organisms tested compared to decoction of ELEPA and ELENL. Among the Gram negative bacteria, lowest inhibitory zone (7.7±1.0 mm) was obtained in S. marcescens, while the highest inhibitory zone (18.9±1.7 mm) was
obtained in Enterobacter spp. The results showed that between 47.3% and 62.4% fungal isolates were sensitive to different concentrations of ELENL (decoction) and ELEPA (decoction), between 62.4% and 74.2% fungal isolates were sensitive to concoction of ELEPA and ELENL at different concentrations, while alkaloidal fractions of ELEPA and ELENL were most effective on C. albicans and A. flavus. This study has shown the necessity to consider these potent ethanolic extracts of P. amarus and N. lotus, judging by the antimicrobial activity, for formulation of synthetic drugs against middle ear infection caused by both bacteria and fungi.
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