Photomicrographic report on filamentation and sporulation in Byssochlamys nivea westling, a fungal contaminant of bottled Raphia Palmwine

Main Article Content

Esiegbuya Daniel Oforitse
Okungbowa Francisca Iziegbe


Growth and sporulation studies were investigated in B. nivea obtained from the Plant Pathology Division of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) where it was originally isolated from pasteurized raphia palm wine. Potato Dextrose Agar and Broth cultures were incubated at room temperature (26 ±2oC) for 15 days during which morphological changes in the solid cultures were observed daily under a microscope fitted with a Motic Digital Camera, using the cover-slip method. Photomicrographs were taken. Liquid cultures were autoclaved at various temperatures. Streaked plates of the autoclaved cultures were observed for fungal growth. For the solid cultures, single filaments of B. nivea were seen after two days, while septation began on the third day. Profuse filamentation on the eighth day was followed by formation of conidia in chains (pseudohyphae). Chlamydospores were formed terminally on the profusely branched filaments on the tenth day while ascospores appeared from day 12-15. In addition, clusters of asci were present. Growth of autoclaved cultures decreased with increase in temperature. There was no growth at 80oC. Although a simple study, this is the first documented report on sequential growth and sporulation studies in B. nivea, a major contaminant of most processed drinks and juices.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
NIJOPHASR, Oforitse, E. . D. . ., & Iziegbe, O. . F. . . (2020). Photomicrographic report on filamentation and sporulation in Byssochlamys nivea westling, a fungal contaminant of bottled Raphia Palmwine . Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 1(2). Retrieved from
Author Biography

Esiegbuya Daniel Oforitse

Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin


Adrio JL, Demain AL (2003). Fungal biotechnology. Intern Microbiol 6:191-199.

Bassir O (1968). Some Nigerian Wines. West Afric J Biol Chem 10: 42-45.

Beuchat LR, Rice SL (1979). Byssochlamys spp. and their importance in processed fruits. Adv Food Res 25:237-288.

Dombrink-Kurtzman MA, Engberg AE (2006). Byssochlamys nivea with patulin-producing capability has an isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene (idh) with sequence homology to Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum. Mycol R e s 1 1 0 :1 1 11 – 1 1 1 8.

Esechie HA (1978). Effects of Different Preservative on the Major Chemical Constituents of Bottled Palm Wine During Storage. Nigerian Agricultural Journal, 15: 158167.

Eziashi EI, Omamor IB, Airede CE, Udozen CV, Chidi N (2010). Heat resistance of genus Byssochlamys isolated from bottled raphia palm wine. J Yeast Fungal Res 1(8):142 – 145.

King ADJR, Michener HD, Ito KA (1969). Control of Byssochlamys and related heat-resistant fungi in grape products. Appl Microbiol 18 (2): 166-173. NAS/NRC (2001). National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Dietary References Intakes for Vitamins and Mineral Elements, National Washington, D.C. p.773. Academy Press,

Ndon BA (2003). The Raphia Palm. Concept Publications, Lagos. 156pp. Obahiagbon FI (2009). A review of the origin, morphology, cultivation, economic products, health and physiological implications of raphia palm. Afric J Food Sci 3(13):447-453.

Obahiagbon FI, Oviasogie P (2007). Changes in the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Processed and Stored Raphia hookeri Palm sap (Shelf Life Studies).

Americ J Food Technol 2 (4): 323-326. Obahiagbon FI, Ukhun ME, Eke CR (2007). Raphia hookeri Sap: recommended dietary allowances and roles of its dietary constituents in human nutrition. Intern J Bios 2(1): 62-65.

Okungbowa FI, Usifo AO (2010). Radial growth of Aspergillus and Penicillium spores exposed to laboratory disinfectants. Micol Aplicada Intern 22 (2): 59-61.

Okolo EC (2008). Evaluation of raphia hookeri progenies. NIFOR in - House Research Review pp 147-148. Rice SL,

Beuchat LR, Worthington RE (1997). Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices. Appl Environ Microbiol 34:791-796.

Samson RA, Houbraken J, Varga J, Frisvad JC (2009). Polyphasic taxonomy of heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs. Persoonia 22: 14-27.

Splittstoesser DF (1987). Fruits and fruit products In: Beuchat LR (ed) Food and Beverage Mycology. 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 101-128.

Taniwaki MH (1995). Growth and mycotoxin production by fungi under modified atmospheres. PhD Thesis, University of New South Wales, Australia.

Tournas V (1994). Heat-resistant fungi of importance to the food and beverage industry. Critic Rev Microbiol 20 (4): 243-263.

Ukhun ME, Okolie NP, Oyerinde AO (2005). Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm 40: 623-628. wine: A comparative study. Afric J Biotechnol 4: 829-832.

Williams ST, Cross T (1971). Actinomycetes Isolation from Soil. In: Booth C (ed). Methods in Microbiology Vol. 4. Academic Press, London, pp 295-334.

Xu Z, Yang S (2007). Production of mycopherolic and Penicillium brevicompactum immobilized in a rotating fibrous-bed bioreactor enzyme. Microbiol