Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Nutritive, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and GC-MS analysis of Plukenetia Conophora Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) Husk

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Okiemute R. Johnson-Ajinwo,
Dibani U Okoroafor


Background: Nigerian walnut or African walnut as it is popularly called belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It has been used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial, antioxidant, male fertility agent, treatment of skin conditions, prolong and constant hiccup alongside CVD. This is the very first study of the husk plant part of the Nigerian walnut, usually considered as waste. The study aimed at evaluating of the phytochemical, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, chemical characterization and proximate analysis of Plukenetia conophora (Euphorbiaceae) husk.


Methods: The husk extraction was carried out by maceration in dichloromethane-methanol 1:1 ratio for 72 hr, followed by concentration on a rotary evaporator at a temperature of 40oC and subsequent drying in a desiccator. The phytochemical screening and proximate analysis were undertaken. The antimicrobial activities were determined by the agar well diffusion method, while for antioxidant activities, DPPH assay was employed. The bioactive compounds were identified by means of the GCMS.


Results: The phytochemical screening result showed alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols and steroids were present. The antimicrobial result demonstrated activity against the range of bacteria investigated and some of the fungi tested. The antioxidant result was shown to be active. The GCMS analysis revealed that Linolenic acid, Oleic acid and methyl stearate were in abundance. The proximate analysis showed it’s a good source of fibre, which supports gut health.


Conclusion: The findings from this study showed that Nigerian walnut husks can pave the way for the development of novel pharmaceuticals through the waste to wealth approach.


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Johnson-Ajinwo, O. R., & Okoroafor , D. . U. (2024). Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Nutritive, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and GC-MS analysis of Plukenetia Conophora Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) Husk. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 13(1), 34–46. https://doi.org/10.60787/nijophasr-v13-i1-545


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