Comparative Assessment of Antidiabetic Properties of Aqueous Extract and its Silver Nanoparticles from Vernonia amygdalina (ASTERACEAE)

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Ekarika C. Johnson
Aniekan S. Ebong
Confidence G. Ejinwa
Olorunfemi A. Eseyin


Background: Diabetes poses significant challenges globally, with modern drug costs and side effects often outweighing their benefits, leading to therapeutic failures. Natural sources, like Vernonia amygdalina (bitter-leaf), are being explored for their potential in diabetes management. This study compared the anti-diabetic effects of aqueous extract and nano-particles from V. amygdalina, using metformin as a benchmark.

Methods: The phytochemicals were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using standard methods. The anti-diabetic activities were assayed using glucose uptake by yeast method and the percentage of glucose uptakes by yeast was calculated.

Results: Phytochemical analysis identified saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids in the plant, quantified as 0.156%, 0.013%, 0.022%, 0.003%, and 0.069%, respectively. Glucose uptake assays using yeast demonstrated enhanced uptake with silver nano-particles of the extract, particularly at 5mg/ml AgNPs, which exhibited 92.17% uptake compared to 53.66% for the aqueous extract and 80.79% for metformin, at a 100µg/ml glucose concentration. Statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA, P<0.05) confirmed the significance of results. The study indicated that silver nano-particles improved glucose utilization, potentially lowering blood glucose levels. Notably, nano-particles show superior anti-diabetic properties compared to the extract alone. Conclusion: The research underscored the potential of green synthesis through nano-particle technology in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of natural remedies for diabetes, offering a promising avenue for developing more effective and safer treatments.


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Johnson, E. C., Ebong, A. S., Ejinwa, C. G., & Eseyin, O. A. (2024). Comparative Assessment of Antidiabetic Properties of Aqueous Extract and its Silver Nanoparticles from Vernonia amygdalina (ASTERACEAE). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 13(1), 76–84.
Author Biography

Confidence G. Ejinwa




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