Formulation of Lozenge of Methanol Root Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) and its Efficacy against some Clinically isolated Pathogens

Main Article Content

Akeem A. Agboke

Abstract

Background: This research aimed to determine the antimicrobial activities of the methanol root extract of Moringa oleifera and its lozenge formulation against the clinically isolated cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using established procedures.


Method: The extract-formulated lozenges are 500 mg each, for five granule batches using the wet granulation method. The flow properties of the granules and tablet properties were evaluated using standard methods. The antimicrobial properties of the extract and the formulated lozenges batches A, B, C, D, and E were evaluated using a pour plate and Agar-well diffusion method respectively.


 Results: The evaluation of the granules and tablets met the required standards and the organisms were susceptible to the extract at concentrations of 200mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml, and 12.5mg/ml. The excipients had no significant effect on the antimicrobial activity of the extract-formulated lozenges batches B, C, D, and E. Batch A which contained no extract, showed no activity as negative control.


Conclusion: The results confirmed the effectiveness of the methanol root extract of M. oleifera formulated as lozenges against the examined organisms. Hence, this plant can be used in the formulation of lozenges and retain its activities in the treatment of mouth and upper respiratory tract infections.  

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
A. Agboke, A. (2024). Formulation of Lozenge of Methanol Root Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) and its Efficacy against some Clinically isolated Pathogens. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 12(4), 19–27. Retrieved from https://nijophasr.net/index.php/nijophasr/article/view/526
Section
Articles

References

Peters, D. (2005). Medicated lozenges. In Lieberman H.A, Lachman, L., Schwartz, J.B; Pharmaceutical dosages forms: Tablet 2nd edition, Marcel Dekker Inc, 419-577.

Carinci, F., et al. (2013). Oral microflora and periodontal disease: New technology for diagnosis in dentistry. 4(2):170-173.

Aas, A.J., Bruce, J.P., Laureen, N.S., Ingar, O., Floyd, E.D. (2005). Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology; 46(4):1407 – 1417.

Pfaller, M.A., Diekema, D.J. (2007). Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis. A persistent public health problem: Clinical Microbiology Review, Virulence (2):119-128.

Masalha, M., Borovok, I., Schreiber R., Aharonowitz, Y., Cohen, G. (2001). “Analysis of transcription of the Staphylococcus aureus, aerobic class1b and anaerobic class III Ribonucleotide reductase gene in response to oxygen”. Journal of bacteriology, 183(24):7260-7272.

Pollack, M. (2000). Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Mandell, G.L., Bennett, J.E., Dolin, R.; Principles and practice of infectious disease: 5th edition, Churchill living stone, (23):10-27.

Sastry, S.V., Nyshdham, J.R. (2000). Review of formulation used in oral cavity: Pharm. sciences and technology today, (3):138-145.

Majekodunmi, S.O. (2015). Review on lozenges: American Journal of medicine and medical sciences, 5(2):99-104.

Parotta, J.A. (1993). “Moringaoleifera lam, Reseda, horseradish tree. Moringaceae. Horseradish tree family”. USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, 61:1-6.

Fahey. (2005). Moringaoleifera: A review of the medical Evidence for its nutritional therapeutic prophylactic properties, Part1. Trees for Life Journal, 1:5.

Madukwe, E.U., Ezeugwu, J.O., Eme, P.E. (2013). “Nutrient composition and sensory, Evaluation of dry Moringa oleifera Aqueous extract. International Journal of Basic and applied sciences, 13:3.

Andrew J.M. (2001). Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Antimicrobial chemistry therapy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy; 48:15-16.

. Turnidge, T.D., Ferraro, M.J., Jorgensen, J.H. (2003). Susceptibility test methods: General considerations. In Murray, P.R., Baron, E.J., Jorgensen, J.H., Pfaller, M.A., Yolken, R. H. Manual of clinical microbiology, 8thedtion; 1103.

Bhattacharyya, L., Schuber S., Sheena C., William R. (2006). “Excipients: Background and introduction”. In: Katdare A, Chubal M; Excipient development for pharmaceutical biotechnology and drug delivery systems, 1st edition, CRC Press. Boca Raton Pp 452-474. eBook ISBN9780429191046.

Gohel, M. (2016). Excipient and their functionalities: Pharmaceutical Information. Journal of pharmaceutical Sciences, 13-15.

British Pharmacopoeia (BP) 2018

Tousey, M.D. (2002). The granulation process 101: Basic technologies for tablet making. Technology, Tableting and Granulation process, 11-13.

Allen, V.L. (2001). Troches and lozenges, Secundum Artem; current and practical compounding information for the pharmacist; 4(2):23-25.

Akeem A. Agboke, Imoh I. Johnny, Musiliu O. Adedokun, Owoidoho V. Paulinus and Nyong E. Etim (2023), Evaluation of anti-infective potential of methanol extract of Moringa oleifera root Lam (moringaceae) formulated as mouthwash. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences Vol. 20 No. 2 (2023) ISSN: 1596-8499 Websites: http://ajol.info/index.php/jophas http://www. facebook.com/; joph.website.co.in.

Martindale, (2011). The complete Drug Reference, 37th Ed. Published by Pharmaceutical Press, London.

Mendes, R.W., Bhargava, H. (2006). Lozenges. In SwarbickJ; Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical technology: 3rdedition, Informa Healthcare Inc, 2231-2235.

Chiang, E. (2013). Measuring tablet hardness: A primer in crushing, fracturing and bending test quantify hardness. Journal of pharmaceutical technology, 37:6.

Nelson, K.G., Wang, L.Y. (2006). Determination of time course of tablet disintegration. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 66(12): 1758-1761.

Seitz, J.A., Friesland, G.M. (1965). Evaluation of physical properties of compressed tablets, tablet hardness and friability. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, (54):1353-1357.