Healing potentials of mixture of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma domestica and Garcinia kola extracts on Renal and Hepatic tissues of Rats pre-treated with Cyclophosphamide

Main Article Content

Godfrey I. Iyare
Nosa T. Omorodion


Background: Zingiber officinale, Curcuma domestica, and Garcinia kola have been a regular feature in herbal medicine as typical feedstocks. They are mainly used as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents. This research work was designed to further investigate ethnobotanical uses of these plants to ascertain their ameliorative roles the on cyclophosphamide effect on histopathological and biochemical indices of renal and hepatic tissues of albino rats.


Methods: The study used 40 rats in all and was done in two phases. Two groups were created for phase 1, group 1 (n = 6) fed with rat feed and water served as the control group; group 2, (34 rats) was given 10 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. The animals were weighed, anesthetized, and 6 of the 34 rats (in group 2) were randomly selected and sacrificed after 5 weeks; blood samples, livers and kidneys were examined histologically. In phase 2, the remaining 28 rats were divided into seven groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, n = 4) and treated with different doses of individual and combined extracts of the plants. After six weeks, the blood samples, livers and kidneys of all the animals were histologically analyzed.


Results: There were significant (P< 0.05) increases in aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine transaminase as well as degenerative effects on the liver and kidney, which were significantly decreased by treatment with different combinations of the extracts.


Conclusion: The plants extract could serve as remedial treatment renal and hepatic problems as well as healthy food for mankind.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
I. Iyare , G., & T. Omorodion, N. (2023). Healing potentials of mixture of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma domestica and Garcinia kola extracts on Renal and Hepatic tissues of Rats pre-treated with Cyclophosphamide. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 11(3). Retrieved from https://nijophasr.net/index.php/nijophasr/article/view/493


. Arunsi UC, Ogbuka E C , Etusim PE, and Solomon E O. Indigenous Nigeria medicinal herbal remedies: A potential source for therapeutic against rheumatoid arthritis, Exp. Biol. and Medicine 2022; 247: 1148–1178

. Okoli UJ. An investigation into the hypoglycaemic activity of GBI biflavinoids of Garcinia cola, Pharm. project, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, 1991..

. Ebong OO and Korubo OT. Comparism of the effect of the seeds of Garcinia kola on the gastric acid secretion in rats. West Africa journal of pharm. and Drug Research, 1996; 12: 51-54

. Oluyemi KA, Omotuyi O, Jimoh OA, Adesanya CLS and Josiah S.J. Erythropoietic and antiobeisity effect of Garcinia in wistar rats. Biotechnology and applied biochemistry. 2007; 46 (1): 69-7

. Adefolaju GA, Ajao MS, Olatunji LA, Enaibe BU, Musa MG. Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of water leaf (TalinumTriangulare) on carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced liver damage in Wister rats. Inter J Pathol. 2009; 8(1)

. Srinivasan.Ginger Rhizomes (ZingiberOfficinale): A spice with multiple health beneficial potentials. Pharm. Nutrition, 2017; 5 (1)

. Malu S, Obochi G, Tawo E, Nyong B..Antibacteria activity and medicinal properties of Ginger. Global journal of pure and applied science 2009; 15: 3-4.

. Limtrakul P, Lipigorngoson S and Namwong O. Inhibitory effect of dietary curcumin on skin carcinogenesis in mice. CancLett 1997; 116:197-203.

. Singh JA, Hossain AK, Ahmed W, George A. "Comparative effectiveness of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids for lupus nephritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis". Systematic Reviews. 2015; 5 (1): 155

. Owoyele VB, Wuraola, CO, Soladoye AO, Olaleye SB. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Tithoniadiversifolia leaf extract, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2004; 90 : 317-321

. National Research Council (NRC). Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. Aqua Int. 2012; 20 (3): 601–602.

. Lorke DA. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 1983; 54:275-287

. Paixão RL, Schramm FR. "Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?". Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 1999;15 (1): 99–110.

. Tietz, N.W.; Pruden, E.L.; Siggaard-Andersen, O. Liver function. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry; Burtis, A.C., Ashwood, E.R., Eds.; Saunders: London, UK, 1994; pp. 1354–1374.

. Omorodion NT, Aniobi, CC, Abdumini LM. andAchukwu PU . Prevalence of Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in Patient Who Visited University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) (2014 – 2018). International Journal of Basic Science and Technology.2021; 7 (1):15 – 1

. Dave Bridges. Chemotherapy can induce weight normalization of obese mice despite undiminished ingestion of high fat diet. Oncotarget. 2017; 8(3):5426-5438. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.14576

. Kumar G., Banu SG, Kannan V, Pandian RM. Antihepatotoxic effect of ?-carotene on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 2005; 43, 351–355.

. Kaur G, Alam MS. Jabbar Z, Javed K, Athar M. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cassia siamea flowers. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 108; 340–348.

. Sreetha S, Padma PR, Umadevi M. Effect of Coriandrum sativum extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009; 47: 702–708.

. Habibi E, Shokrzadeh, M, Chabra, A., Naghshvar F, Keshavarz-Maleki R, Ahmadi A. Protective effects of Origanum vulgare ethanol extract against cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity in mice. Pharm. Bio. 2015; 53: 1–6.

. Nyblom H, Bjornsson E, Simren M, Aldenborg F, Almer S. Olsso R. The AST/ALT ratio as an indicator of cirrhosis in patients with PBC. Liver Int. 2006; 26: 840–845.

. Singh A, Bhat TK, Sharma OP. Clinical Biochemistry of Hepatotoxicity. J. Clin. Toxicol. 2011; 4: 1–19.

. Iyare GI, Omorodion NT, Achukwu PU. The Synergistic Role of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Garcinia kola tract on Immunological and Hematological Indices of Albino Rats Previously Immunosuppressed with Cyclophosphamide. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6 (2):260-264.

. Andrea K. Wassmuth BR1, Regina HL, Hans L. Evaluation of the Mythic 18 hematology analyzer for use with canine, feline, and equine samples. J Vet Diag Invest. 2011; 23(3):436–453.

. Uniyal GC, Bala S, Mathur AK, Kulkarni RN. Symmetry C18 column: A better choice for the analysis of indole alkaloids of Cathranthus roseus. Phy Anal. 2001; 12:206-210.

. Mahato SB and Sen S. Advances in triterpenoid research, 1990–1994. Phytochem. 1997; 44(7):1185-1236.

. Haenen G, Vermeulen N, Tsoi JN, Ragetli HM, Timmerman H, Blast A.Activation of the microsomal glutathione-S-transferase and reduction of the glutathione dependent protection against lipid peroxidation by acrolein. BiochemPharmacol, 1988; 37:1933.

Haenen G, Vermeulen N, Tsoi JN, Ragetli HM, Timmerman H, Blast A. Activation of the microsomal glutathione-S-transferase and reduction of the glutathione dependent protection against lipid peroxidation by acrolein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:1933.

. Sakr S, El-messady F. Cyclophosphamide Induced Histologial and Immunohistochemical Alterations in Kidney of Albino Rats: The Ameliorative Effect of Fennel Oil. International Journal of Sciences 2017; 6 (08): 78-87.