Main Article Content
Background: The therapeutic capability of the synergy of Solenostemous monostachyus and Vernonia amygdalina against calcium oxide was investigated.
Methods: The fish were acclimatized for fourteen days, divided into five groups, and exposing to different ranges of treatments; Group A received 250mg/L CaO; group B received 250mg/L CaO and 1500mg/L V. amygdalina; group C received 250mg/L CaO and 1500mg/L S. monstachyus; group D received 250mg/L CaO and 750mg/L each of (V. amygdalina and S. monstachyus) and the control was left untreated. Water quality were kept within normal ranges by using an aerator. The fish were removed from each aquarium on the 28th day of the experiment, blood sample was taken from the caudal vein, dissected and the brain was carefully removed, and homogenized in a bottle. The blood was centrifuged for 15 minutes to ensure that the serum was clearly separated, and was then kept at -80 °C until analysis, while the brain was centrifuged and supernatant collected in a tube and used as an enzyme source. All the markers were measured spectrophotometrically.
Results: The activity of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione- s transferase were interfered in the oxide-induced fish, although it was improved when treated with each plant's extract alone, but restored in the synergy therapy. Similar observations were noticed in glucose, protein, urea, creatine, and globulin levels.
Conclusion: . These findings are encouraging; nonetheless, these plant extracts should be used with caution because the abuse and misuse can be hazardous to one's health.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Ferreira AC, Proença MLM, Serralheiro ME,M. Araújom. The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal. J Ethnopharmacology. 2006; 108:31–37.
Caruso DD, Lusiastuti AM, Taukhid SJ, Komarudin OO, Legendre MM. Traditional pharmacopeia in small scale fresh water ?sh farms in West Java, Indonesia: an ethno veterinary approach. Aquaculture. 2013; 416–417.
Koffi NT, Marie–Solange AA, Emma ZG Noel H. Ethnobotanical study of plants used to reat arterial hypertension in traditional medicine, by abbey and Krobou population of Agboville (Cote d’ivoire). European Journal of Science Research. 2009;35:85–98.
Xing BN, Jin SS, Wang HH, Tang QF, Liu JH, et al., New diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum coreanum and their anti-arrhythmic effects on cardiac sodium current. Fitoterapia. 2014; 94: 120-126.
Ogbonnia SO, Nkemehule FE, Emma N, Anyika EN, Evaluation of acute and subchronic toxicity of Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill) Vahl (Fam. Verbanaceae) extract in animals. African J Biotechnology. 2009;8:1793–1799
Wen CC, Kuo YH, Jan JT, Liang PH, Wang SY, et al., Specific plant terpenoids and lignoids possess potent antiviral activities against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Journal of Medical Chemistry. 2007; 50: 4087-4095.
Prassas I, Diamandis EP. Novel therapeutic applications of cardiac glycosides. Nat. Rev Drug Disc.2008; 7: 926-935.
Ayinde BA, Omogbai EK, Amaechina FC. Pharmacognosy and hypotensiveevaluation of Ficusexasperata Vahl (Moraceae) leaf. ActaPoloniaePharmaceutica. 2007; 64:543-546
Chakraborty SB, Hancz CC. Application of phytochemicals as immune stimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in ?n ?sh culture. Reviews in Aquaculture. 2011; 3.103–119.
Fabrini RA, Bocedi E, Del Grosso L, Morici G, Federici A, Palleschi A. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a novel biomarker to check environmental pollution hazardous for humans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 426: 71–75.
Mba CE, Menut C. Aromatic plants of tropical Central Africa. Flav Frag J. 2004;9:315–317.
Noce A, Fabrini R, Dessì M, Bocedi A, Santini S, Rovella V. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase activity: a possible early biomarker for blood toxicity in uremic diabeticpatients. Acta Diabetol. 2014; 51: 219 –224.
Lee Y, Yuk D, Lee J, et al., Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents lipopolysaccharide induced elevation of ?-amyloid generation and memory deficiency. Brain Res. 2009;1250: 164–174.
Salah N, Miller NJ, Paganga G, Tijburg L, Bolwell GP, Rice-Evans C. Polyphenolic flavanols as scavengers of aqueous phase radicals and as chain-breaking antioxidants. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2005;322:339–346.
Bhuvaneswari R, Balasundaram C. Traditional Indian herbal extracts used invitro Against growth of the pathogenic bacteria–Aeromonas hydrophilia. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture–Bamidgeh. 2006;58:89–96.
Jagetia GC, Reddy TK. The grape fruit flavonone naringin protects mice against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Journal of Molecular Biochemistry. 2014; 3: 34-49.
Singh AB, Yadav DK, Mauria R, Srivastava AK. Antihyperglycaemic activity of a-amyrin acetate in rats and db/db mice. Natural Product Research. 2009; 23;876-882.
Ayinde BA, Omogbai EK, Amaechina FC. Pharmacognosy and hypotensiveevaluation of FicusexasperataVahl (Moraceae) leaf. ActaPoloniaePharmaceutica. 2007;64:543-546.
Adnan M, Rasul A, Hussain G, et al., Ginkgetin: a naturalbiflavone with versatile pharmacological activities, Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2020; 145, Article ID 111642.
Kaur M, Jindal R. Oxidative Stress response in liver, kidney and gills of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Cuvier&Valenciennes) exposed to chlorpyrifos. Biol. Med. 2017; 1: 103-112.
Mariotti F, Tome D, Mirand PP. Converting nitrogen into protein—Beyond 6.25 and Jones’ factors. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 2008;48:177–184.
Stefani EC, Philipson LH, Prince VE, Kinkel MD. Blood sugar measurement in zebrafish reveals dynamics of glucose homeostasis. Zebrafish. 2010;7(2):205-213.
Galloway TS, Handy RD. Immunotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides. Ecotoxicology. 2003; 12: 344–363.
Byers DM, Irwin LN, Moss DE, Sumaya IC, Hohmann CF. Prenatal exposure to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor methane sulfonyl fluoride alters forebrain morphology and gene expression, Developmental Brain Research. 2005;158(1-2): 13–22.
Ogbonnia SO, Nkemehule FE, Emma N, Anyika EN. Evaluation of acute and subchronic toxicity of Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill) Vahl (Fam. Verbanaceae) extract in animals. African J Biotechnology. 2005; 8:1793–1799.
Orhan IB, Sener MI, Choudhary A, Khalid B. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinester-ase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinalplants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004;91:57-60.
Atteiaa HG, Husseinb EM. In vitro antibacterial and synergistic effects of some plant extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. J. Antimicrob. 2014;129: 338–346.
Rahimi RN, Shekoufeh L, Bagher AA. Mohammed A. Review of the role of antioxidants in the management of diabetes and its complications Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 59: 365-373.
Exarchou V, Nenadis N, Tsimidou IP, Gerothanassis A, Troganis D, Boskou O. Antioxidant activities and phenolic composition of extracts from Greek oregano, Greek sage and summer savory. Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50(19):5294-5299
Singh AB, Yadav DK, Mauria A, Srivastava AK. Antihyperglycaemic activity of a-amyrin acetate in rats and db/db mice. Natural Product Research. 2009; 23:876-882.