Acute Toxicity and Histopathological Evaluation of Seed and Stem Bark Extracts of Carapa procera D.C Meliaceae on Liver and Kidney of Male Wistar Rats
Main Article Content
Background: Carapa procera D.C belongs to the family of Meliaceae is a medicinal plant used in the Ijaw area of
Niger Delta for the management of diseases; seed for malaria while decotion of stem bark for erectile dysfunction in
ethnomedicine. The aim of study is to assess the safety, toxicity on the liver and kidney in order to corroborate and
regulate the use in humans.
Method: The seed and stem bark were extracted using n-hexane, dichloromethane, and 70% methanol via successive
cold maceration. Acute toxicity profile was determined using the Lorke’s method. The LD50 for the crude seed and
stem bark extract were determined to be at 866.03 and 447.21 mg/kg. Various doses of the LD50 (10, 20 and 30%)
were administered daily to ninety male rats orally for 7 days. On the 8th day it was anaesthetized using chloroform,
sacrificed, liver and kidney harvested for histological evaluation.
Results: The histological assessment revealed no distortion in organs assessed when compared to control excerpt the
high dose crude seed extract which showed signs of toxicity.
Conclusion: The crude seed extract at high dose affect the liver due to distortion, steatosis and should not be used
while at low and medium dose showed no alteration in the hepatic architecture.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Nester E W, Anderson DG, Roberts CE, Pearsall, NN, Nester MT, Hurley D. Microbiology, A Human Perspective
th Edition, McGraw Hill Company, Newyork, 2004; 507-532.
Kirchain WR, Gil MA. Drug induced liver disease. In: Pharmacotherapy: A pathophysiological approach. DiPiro,
J.T., Talbert, R.L., Yee, G.C., Matzke, G.R., Wells B.G., and Posey, L.M. McGraw Hill Medical Publishing
Division, Newyork, 2015; 750-757.
Akah P A. Drug Absorption, Distribution and Biotransformation In: Akubue P.I(Editor) Textbook of
Pharmacology. AFP, Onitsha, 2005; 2-15p.
Owaba ADC, Etim EI, Umoh UF. The Effect of Stem Bark Extracts of Carapaprocera D.C Meliaceae on
Hormonal and Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Wistar Rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Research, 2021;21(2):276-284.
Owaba A.D.C,Etim, E. I Johnson E.C. Comparative Haematological Effect of Seed and Stem Bark Extracts of
CarapaProcera D.C Meliaceae in Male Rodents. The Journal of Phytopharmacology,2022; 11(1): 137-141.
Lorke D.A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of Toxicology. 1983; 54, 275 – 287
Okokon EJ, Udoh EA, Frank GS, Udo MN. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Panicum maximum.
African Journal of Biomedical Research, 2011; 14, 125 - 130.
Chinedu E, Arome D, Ameh E S. A new method for determining acute toxicity in animal models. Toxicol
International, 2013; 20(3): 224-226.
Owabaet al: Acute Toxicity and Histopathological Evaluation of Seed and Stem Bark Extracts of
Carapaprocera D.C Meliaceae on Liver and Kidney of Male Wistar Rats
Erhirhie EO, Ihekwereme CP, Illodigwe EE. Advances in acute toxicity testing: strengths, weakness and regulatory
acceptance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology,2018; 11(1): 5-12. Doi 10.2478/intox-2018-0001.
Etuk EU, Mohammad AA. Fertility enhancing effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Lophiralanceolata in male
Sparguedawley rats. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2009; (1): 001-004.
Ezz-Din D, Gabry MS., Farrag ARH, Moneim AEA. Physiological and histological impact of Azadirachtaindica
(neem) leaves extract in a rat model of cisplastin induced and nephrotoxicity. Journal of Medicinal Plants
Research. 2011; 5(23): 5499-5506.
Najam W S. (2012). Significant value of hormonal assays as marker for male infertility in Tikrit City. Tikrit
Medical Journal. 18(2): 314-321.
Dumaro C A, Etim E,Ahmadu, AA. Anti-inflammatory constituents of Randiahispidia, K. SchumRubiaceae.
Jounal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research,2017; 9(2): 160-164
Ngwu O E, Okoye JIComparative evaluation of selected medicinal plants on fertility indices reproductive
hormones and sperm profile of albino wistar rats: Animal case study. International Journal of Plants and Soil
Science, 2019; 29(2): 1-6.
Dapar MLP, Wannang NN, Gyang, SS, Tanko, MN. The histolopathologic effects of
Securidacalongepedunculata on heart, liver, and lungs of rats. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2007; 6(5):
Galam NZ, Gambo I M, Habeeb AA, Shugaba AI. The effect of Aqueous extract of Garcinia kola seed on the
liver histology. Journal of Natural Science Research. 2013; 3(1): 81-87.
Aboonabi A, Rahmat A, Othman F. Effect of pomegranate on histopathology of liver and kidney on generated
oxidative stress in diabetic induced rats. Journal of Cytology and Histology, 2014; 6(1): 1-5. Doi 10.4172/2157-
Yaman T, Uyar A, Celik I, Alkan EE, Keles OF, Yener Z. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical study of
antidiabetic effect of Heracleumpersicum extract in experimentally diabetic rats. Indian Journal of
Pharmaceutical Education and Research. 2017; 51(3): S450-457.
Adelakun SA, Ogunlade B, Omotoso OD. Histomorphological responses to aqueous crude leaf extract of Alafia
barteri on prefrontal cortex, heart, kidney, liver and testis of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. European journal
of Biological Research, 2018; 8(2): 105-111.
Nwafor PA. My interswitch from fertility regulating plants contraceptives to aphrodisiacs.69th Inaugural Lecture
of the University of Uyo, Uyo. The University of Uyo Press Ltd, Uyo, Nigeria. 2019; 1-138p.