Soil Characteristics and Growth Performance of Arachis hypogea L. in Soil Treated with Decomposed Fluted Pumpkin Pods

Main Article Content

Samuel E. Osim


Background: The benefits of organic manure in sustainable agriculture cannot be overemphasized in view of the balanced supply of nutrients. Arachis hypogea is a lipid producing food nutrient supplement that provides more than 30 essential nutrients and phytonutrients.  This study was carried out to assess the potency of decomposed fluted pumpkin pods as organic manure in soil cultivated with the test crop.


Methods: Soil samples (0-15cm depth) collected from the study site, CRUTECH, Calabar, Cross River State, were analysed using standard methods for physico-chemical properties. Pods of fluted pumpkin were macerated into small pieces, weighed and mixed with 2.0kg of sandy loam soil. These were allowed to condition for 3 weeks. The levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0kg of fluted pumpkin pods were used alongside a control (0kg-Soil only) treatment.  Each treatment containing 2.0 kg sandy loam soil + appropriate level of fluted pumpkin pods was placed in poly bags and four (4) seeds of A.  hypogea   were sown directly in each poly bag. 


Results: The contents of available phosphorus, calcium, organic carbon, total nitrogen, sodium, magnesium and potassium significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increase in the level of decomposed fluted pumpkin pods. In addition, the values recorded in all soils treated with decomposed fluted pumpkin pods were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control treatment (0kg). 


Conclusion: Decomposed fluted pumpkin pods has the potentials as a valuable source of organic manure for improvement of growth performance of A. hypogea.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
E. Osim, S. . (2021). Soil Characteristics and Growth Performance of Arachis hypogea L. in Soil Treated with Decomposed Fluted Pumpkin Pods . Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 10(2). Retrieved from


Geetha K, Ramarao N, Kiran RS, Srilatha K, Mamatha P, Rao VU. An overview on Arachis hypogaea plant. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2013; 4(12): 4508-18.

Kylenorton: The World Most Healthy Foods – Nuts & Seeds – Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) Health Benefits and Side Effects.:// -peanuts-arachis-hypogaea-health-benefits-and-side-=87ffects/ last accessed on 11 October 2013.

Han SH, An JY, Hwang J, Kim SB, Park BB. The effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the growth and nutrient concentrations of yellow poplar (Liriodendrontulipifera Lin.) nursery system, Forest Science and Technology. 2016;12(3):137-143.

Kaur K, Kapoor KK, Gupta AP. Impact of organic manure with without mineral fertilizers on soil chemical biological properties under tropical conditions. J. Plant Nutr.Soil Sci.2005;168(1):117–122..

Murmu K, Swain DK, Ghosh BC. Comparative assessment of conventional and organic nutrient

management on crop growth and yield and soil fertility in tomato-sweet corn production system Aust. . Crop Sci; 2013; 7(11):1617–1626.

Chen D, Wang Y, Liu S, Wei X. Response of relative sap flow to meteorological factors under different

Soil moisture conditions in rainfed jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) plantations in semiarid North West

China. Agr. Water Manage. 2014; 136: 23–33.

Zhao YC, Yan ZB, Qin JH, Xiao ZW. Effects of long-term cattle manure application on soil properties

And soil heavy metals in corn seed production in Northwest China. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 2014; 21; : 7586–7595.

Wang YJ, Xie ZK, Malhi SS, Vera CL, Zhang YB, Wang JN. Effects of rainfall harvesting and mulching

technologies on water use efficiency and crop yield in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China. Agr Water

Manage. 2009; 96: 374–382.

Liu CA, Zhou LM, Jia JJ, Wang LJ, Si JT, Li X, et al. Maize yield and water balance is affected by

Nitrogen application in a film-mulching ridge–furrow system in a semiarid region of China. Eur J Agr.

;52: 103–111.

Dai XQ, Ouyang Z, Li YS, Wang HM. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and

potassium fertilizer in North China Plain. PLoS One. 2013;8: e82147. pmid:24349204

Fan YB, Wang CG, Nan ZB. Determining water use efficiency of wheat and cotton: a meta-regression

Analysis. Agr Water Manage. 2018;199: 48–60.

Meng QF, Hou P, Wu LQ, Chen XP, Cui ZL, Zhang FS. Understanding production potential and yield

gaps in intensive maize production in China. Field Crop Res. 2013;143: 91–97.

Ewona IO, Udo SO. Characteristic pattern of rainfall in Calabar, a tropical coastal location. Nigerian

Journal of physics. 2008, 20:1.

Adie HA, Okon OE, Arong GA, Ekpo UF, Braide EI. Environmental factors and distribution of urinary

Schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Zoological Research. 2014;10:


A.O.A.C., Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Methods of analysis (16h Edition), Washington

DC., U.S.A.1999.

Obi 1U. Statistical Methods of Detecting Differences Between Treatment Means and Methodology Issues in Laboratory and Field Experiments. Nigeria, AP Express publishers limited, 2002.

Etukudo MM, Nwaukwu IA, Habila S. The Effect of Sawdust and Goat Dung Supplements on the growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (L. Moench) in Diesel Oil Contaminated Soil. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. 2011; 3(2): 2011, 92- 98.

Odokuma LO, Ibor, MN. Nitrogen fixing bacteria enhanced bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil.

Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2002; 8(4): 455- 468.

Belay A, Classens AS, Wehner FC, De-Beer JM. Influence of residual manure on selected nutrient

elements and microbial composition of soil under long term crop rotation. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 2001; 18: 1-6.

Chandra K. Production and quality control of organic inputs; A 10 day training program on production and Quality control of organic inputs of Kottayam, Kerala Regional Centre of organic farming- Herbbal,

Banglaore, 24, 2005; pp 1-46.

Agbede OO. Understanding soil and plant nutrition. Nigeria: Salmon Press and Co. Ltd, 2009, pp. 20-60.

Moeller J, Gaarn H, Steckel T, Wedebye EB, Westermann P. Environmental sciences, biodegradation, argumentation, diesel fuels, soils contamination. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicology, 2008; 96 (6):


Akinyele BJ, Adetuyi FC. Effect of agrowastes,pH and temperature variation on the growth of

Volvarieella volvacea. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005; 4(6):1390-1395.

Hubbe MA, Nazhad M, Sanchhez C. Composting as a way to convert cellulosic biomass and organic

waste into high value soil amendment, a review: Bioresources, 2010; 5(4): 2808-2854.

Etukudo MM, Roberts EMI, Omeje F. Early Seedling Growth and Development Response of Zea mays L. To Extract from Palm Bunch Ash (PBAE) of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. International Journal of recent Scientific Research, 2014; 5(7): 1307 -1310.

Kapanen A, Itavaara M. Ecotoxicity tests for compost application. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2001; 49: 1-16.

Sanwal SK, Lakminarayana K, Yadav RK, Rai N, Yaldav DS, Mousumi B. Effect of organic manures on Soil fertility, growth, physiology, yield and quality of turmeric. Indian Journal of Horticulture 2007. 64(4): 444-449.

Premsekhar M, Rajashree V. Influence of organic manure on growth, yield and quality of okra. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2009;3(1): 6 – 8.

Seifritz W. Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy in Optimizing Yields. The Role of Fertilizers. In: Proceedings of 12th IPI Congress. 1992, Pp. 155 – 163.

Maritus CHT, Vlelc PLG.. The Management of Organic Matter in Tropical Soils: What are the priorities?

Nutrients Cycling in Agro Ecosystems.1992; 61: 1-16.