Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Beta vulgaris Linnaeus (Chenopodiaceae) – A Review

Main Article Content

Chidera S. Afiomah
Kingsley Iwuozor



Background: Beta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a nutritious vegetable that is known by various names all over the world. This review summarizes and analyzes the nutritional as well as phytochemical properties of Beta vulgaris L that makes it suitable as food and medicine for man.


Methods: Related literature from 1988-2020 was gotten and compiled from academic search databases; Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus. The articles were searched for with the aid of keywords (Nutritional, Beta vulgaris, Phytochemical, and Proximate).


Results: Studies indicate that Beta vulgaris L. contains carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, vitamins, fibres that makes it a good source of food for man and its leaves a healthy source of feed for animals; Phenolic acids (such as Caffeic acid, Syringic acid and Ferulic acid), Flavonoids (such as Quercetin, Rutin, and Myricertin) and Betalains (such as Betanin, Isobetanin, Vulgaxanthin I and II). The plant also contains sucrose (carbohydrate) which makes its root suitable for the industrial production of sugar as it is the second most used plant for the production of raw sugar after Saccharum officinarum. Even with all these properties, many are not aware of the medicinal functions of this plant which include being a natural aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer agent.


Conclusion: This paper provides a review on the nutritional and phytochemical characteristics of Beta vulgaris L. which should be useful for further study of the usefulness of this plant.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
S. Afiomah, C. ., & Iwuozor, K. (2020). Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Beta vulgaris Linnaeus (Chenopodiaceae) – A Review. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 9(4), 38–44. Retrieved from
Author Biography

Chidera S. Afiomah

Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria


. Abai, E.J., Essien, K.E., and Ekpenyong, I.O. (2020). Evaluation of Proximate, Minerals and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia kola cultivated in Essien Udim, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 7(2); 86-90.

. Adesuyi, A.O., Elumm, I.K., Adaramola, F.B., and Nwokocha, A.G.M. (2011). Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4(1); 9-14.

. Akter, S., Bablee, A.L., Rana, S., Nigar, M., Nadia, Z., and Salam, M. (2020). Effects of foliar and root application of Epsom salt on aquaponics beetroot (Beta vulgaris) production in confined condition. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 6(1); 56-66.

. Alaje, D.O., Owolabi, K.T., Olakunle, T.P., Oluoti, O.J. and Adetuberu, I.A. (2014). Nutritional, Minerals and Phytochemicals composition of Garcinia kola [Bitter cola] and Aframomum melegueta [Alligator pepper]. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, 8(1); 86-91.

. Amnah, M. (2013). Nutritional, Sensory and Biological Study of Biscuits Fortified with Reed Beet Roots. Life Science Journal, 10(3); 1579-1584.

. Ansari, R., Singh, S.B., Kumar, P., and Broadway, A.A. (2017). Proximate and sensory analysis of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) and Jamun (Syzygium cumini) juice blended drink. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6(6); 1280-1283.

. Asadi, S.Z., and Khan, M.A. (2020). The Effect of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves Powder on Nutritional, Textural, Sensorial and Antioxidant Properties of Cookies. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology; 1-15.

. Babarykin, D., Smirnova, G., Pundinsh, I., Vasiljeva, S., Krumina, G., Agejchenko, V. (2019). Red beet (Beta vulgaris) Impact on Human Health. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7; 61-79.

. Bavec, M., Turinek, M., Grobelnik, M.S., Slatnar, A., Bavec, F. (2010). Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(22); 11825-11831.

. Biondo, P., Boeing, J., Barizao, E., Souza, N., Matsushita, M., Oliveira, C., Boroski, M., Visentainer, J. (2014). Evaluation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves during its developmental stages: a chemical composition study. Food Science and Technology, 34(1); 94-101.

. Chhikara, N., Kushwaha, K., Sharma, P., Gat, Y., Panghal, A. (2019). Bioactive compounds of beetroot and utilization in food processing industry: A critical review. Food Chemistry, 272; 192-200.

. Dhawan, D., and Sharma, S. (2019). Exploration of the Nourishing, Antioxidant and Product Development Potential of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) Flour. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 9(6); 280-284.

. Elaby, S., Ali, J. (2018). The anti-anemic effect of dried beet green in phenylhydrazine treated rats. Archives of Pharmaceutical Sciences Ain Shams University, 2(2); 54-69.

. Eleyinmi, A.F., David, C.B., Isiaka, A.A., Peter, S., and Aladesanmi, A.O. (2006). Chemical Composition of Bitter Cola seed and hull. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 15/56(4); 395-400.

. Fernandez, M., Jagus, R., and Aguero, M. (2017). Evaluation and Characterization of Nutritional, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Beet Greens. ACTA Scientific Nutritional Health, 1(3); 37-45.

. Gamba, M., Raguindin, P., Asllanaj, E., Merlo, F., Glisic, M., Minder, B., Bussler, W., Metzger, B., Kern, H., Muka, T. (2020). Bioactive compounds and nutritional composition of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla and flavescens): a systematic review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition; 1-16.

. Iwuozor, K.O. (2019). Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Anti-Nutritional Factors in five wine samples. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section A, 2(2), 136-146.

. Jha, R., and Gupta, R.K. (2016). Development of energy drink containing Aegle marmelos, Rubia cordifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and Beta vulgaris and its phytochemical, nutritive and antimicrobial analysis. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phtochemical, 5(1); 186-193.

. Jurgen, W., Gundula, W., Stefan, H., Pinar, U., Peter, L., Ulrike, M. Hoglinger, O., and Weghuber, J. (2015). Compositional characteristics of commercial beetroot products and beetroot juice prepared from seven beetroot varieties grown in Upper Austria. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 42; 46-55.

. Kale, R.G., Sawate, A.R., Kshirsagar, R.B., Patil, B.M., and Mane, R.P. (2018). Studies on evaluation of physical and chemical composition of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.). International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6(2); 2977-2979.

. Koubaier, H., Snoussi, A., Essaidi, I., Chaabouni, M., Thonart, P., and Bouzouita, N. (2014). Betalain and Phenolic Compositions, Antioxidant activity of Tunisian Reed Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Conditiva) Roots and Stems Extracts. International Journal of Food Properties, 17; 1934-1945.

. Lembong, E., Utama, G., and Saputra, R. (2018). Phytochemical test, Vitamin C content and antioxidant activities of Beet Root (Beta vulgaris Linn.) extracts as food coloring agent from some areas in Java Island. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, 306; 1-7.

. Ljubica, I., Ivana, M., Ana, T., Dijana, D., Boban, M., Mirko, K., and Miroslav, V. (2018). Nutritional and phytochemical content of Swiss chard from Montenegro, under different fertilization and irrigation treatments. British Food Journal; 1-16.

. Masih, D., Singh, N., and Singh, A. (2019). Red beetroot: A source of natural colourant and antioxidants: A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8(4); 162-166.

. Mazi, E.A., Okoronkwo, K.A., and Ibe, U.K. (2013). Physico-chemical and Nutritive Properties of Bitter kola. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 3(4); 1-3

. Merodio, C., and Sabater, B. (1988). Preparation and Properties of a White Protein Fraction in High Yield from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L) Leaves. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 44; 237-243.

. Nikan, M., and Manayi, A. (2018). Book chapter on Beta vulgaris from Non-vitamin and Non-mineral Nutritional Supplements. Academic Press Publishers, Pp. 153-158.

. Odoh, U.E., and Okoro, E.C. (2013). Quantitative Phytochemical, Proximate/Nutritive Composition Analysis of Beta vulgaris Linnaeus (Chenopodiaceae). International Journal of Current Research, 5(12); 3723-3728.

. Omeh, Y.N., Onoja, S.O., Ezeja, M.I., Uchendu, W.C., Okorie, E., and Raymond, M. (2014). Quantitative Phytochemical, Proximate Analysis and Hypolipidemic Effect of Garcinia kola. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 4(36); 5770-5778.

. Omogbai, B.A., and Omoregie, I.A. (2016). Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Natural Preservative from Beet root (Beta vulgaris) Against Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Organisms. African Scientist, 17(2); 135-145.

. Perumpuli, P., Fernando, G., Kaumal,M., Arandara, M., and Silva, S. (2018). Development of low sugar vegetable jam from beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.): Studies on Physicochemical Sensory and Nutritional Properties. International Journal of Theoretical & Applied Sciences, 10(2); 22-27.

. Preethi, R., Deotale, S.M., Moses, J.A., and Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2020). Conductive hydro drying of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) pulp: Insights for natural food colorant applications. Journal of Food Process Engineering; 1-10.

. Ramesh, D., Salelgn, K., and Abiyu, K. (2017). Production of Beet Sugar and Bio-ethanol from sugar beet and its bagasse: A review. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 43(4); 222-233.

. Sakhare, K.S., Sawate, A.R., Kshirsagar. R.B., and Taur, A.T. (2019). Studies on technology development, organoleptic evaluation and proximate composition of beetroot candy by using different sweetners. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8(2); 766-769.

. Shyamala, B.N., and Jamuna, P. (2010). Nutritional content and anti-oxidant properties of pulp waste from Daucas carota and Beta vulgaris. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 16(3); 397-408.

. Singh, S., Swain, S., Singh, D.R., Salim, K.M., Nayak, D., and Roy, S.D. (2015). Changes in phytochemicals, anti-nutrients and antioxidant activity in leafy vegetables by microwave boiling with normal and 5 % NaCl solution. Food Chemistry, 176; 244-253.

. Sospeter, N., Matasyoh, J., Mwaniki, C., Mwendia, C., Kobia, G. (2013). A Review on some Phytochemicals commonly found in Medicinal Plants. International Journal of Medicinal Plants, 105; 135-140.