Health Risk Assessment of Organochlorine and Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Field grown Fruits and Vegetables

Main Article Content

Fanika Suleiman
Abdulmumin A Nuhu
Israila Z Yashim

Abstract

Background: The presence of pesticide residues in agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers, and consumption of pesticide contaminated vegetables and fruits pose a major threat to public health. The aim of this study was to assess the health risk of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues via dietary intake of field grown fruits and vegetables along River Galma in Zaria Kaduna state.


 


Methods: Samples were analysed for multi- pesticide residues using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC – MS). The health risk indices (HRI) of the pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables and fruits were assessed according to the guidelines recommended by the USEPA, where the estimated daily intake (EDI) were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI).


 


Results:The human health risk assessment in all the samples analysed revealed that detected organochlorines pesticides such as heptachlor epoxide B, endosulfan II and delta- BHC can pose a threat to human health as they all have HRI values greater than one. Also, a – Cypemethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid with values of 1.01 and 1.86 in spinach and onion respectively greater than index of one. The highest health index values of 26.58, 23.22, and 6.93 were found for heptachlor epoxide B in onion, spinach and carrots respectively. However, some of the detected pesticides pose no health risk in the fruits and vegetables samples analysed.


 


Conclusion: Therefore, the results of this study suggest continuous monitoring and strict regulation of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits to protect consumer health in the study area.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Suleiman, F. ., A Nuhu, A., & Z Yashim, I. . (2021). Health Risk Assessment of Organochlorine and Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Field grown Fruits and Vegetables . Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 10(1). Retrieved from https://nijophasr.net/index.php/nijophasr/article/view/399
Section
Articles

References

Fenik, J., Tankiewiez, M. and Biziuk, M. Properties and determinationof pesticides in fruits and vegetables. Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2011, 30(6):814-826.

Conacher, H.B.S and Mes, J. Assessment of human exposure to chemical contaminants in Foods.Food Additive Contamination. 1993, 10:5-15.

Uygun U., Koksel H. and Atli, A. Residue levels of malathion and its metabolites and fenitrothion in post- harvest treated wheat during storage, milling and baking. Food Chem. 2005, 92, 643

EC: European Communities. Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledge. Directorate-General for Health and Consumers European Commission – B- 1049 Brussels. 2008, ISBN 978-92-79-09517- 7DOI10.2772/13509 http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health - consumer/index-en.htm.

WHO (World Health Organisation) (2002). The world Health report 2002. Reducing Risks, promoting healthy life.WHO.Geneva.

Bhanti, M., Shukla, G., and Taneja, A. Contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides and farmers’ knowledge, perception, practices in rural India: A case study. Bull Environ, Conta, Toxicol. 2004, 73:787-793.

D’ Mello JPF. Food safety: Contaminant and toxins. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, Cambridge, MA. 2003, P.480.

Zawiyah, S., CheYB, Man, NazimahSAH, Chin CK, Tsukamoto I, Hamanya AH, Norhaizan I. Determination of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides in fruit and vegetables using SAX/PSA clean-up column. Food Chem. 2007, 102:98-108

FAO/WHO. Food Standards Programme. In Proceedings of Codex Alimentarius Commission. Twenty Seven Session, Geneva, Switzerland, 28 June to 3 July, 2004, pp. 1-103.

Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) official method 2007.01.

Wang, X., Sato,T., Xing, B. and Tao, S. Health Risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Science of the Total Environment. 2005, 350: 28-37.

EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). The EFSA’s 7th scientific colloquium summary report cumulative risk assessment of pesticides to human health. 2007: The way forward EFSA, November 2006, Parma. Italy, Available at http:/www.efsa.europa.eu/en/supporting/pub/117e.htm, accessed 18 Nov, 2016.

Darko, G. and Akoto, O. Dietary intake of organophosphorus pesticide residues through vegetables from Kumasi, Ghana.Food chemical toxicology. 2008, 46: 3703- 3706.

Osei, A., Sandra,G., Martin, K.A. and Joseph, A. Estimation of human health risk associated with the consumption of pesticide – contaminated vegetables from Kumasi, Ghana. Environ Monit Assess. 2015, 187:244.DOI10.1007/s/0661-015-447710.

Lozowicka, B., Kacyriski, P., Rutkowska, E., Jankowska, M. and Hrynko, I. Evaluation of pesticide residues in Fruits from Poland and health risk assessment. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Natural Research Institute. Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Poland. 2013, Vol.4, no.5B, 106-111.