Main Article Content
Background: The current global antibiotic resistance crisis has led to an increase in the search for alternative therapies. Chromobacterium violaceum has attracted interest due to its antibacterial activity. This activity however differs depending on strain. This study set out to explore the antibacterial capabilities of C. violaceum isolated from Rivers State, Nigeria.
Methods: Water samples collected from different points of the New Calabar River were assessed for the presence of C. violaceum using standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby Bauer technique and antibacterial activity assessed using the agar well diffusion and spot test.
Results: C. violaceum was only detected from a single sample of the six analyzed. This isolate was resistant to 50% of the antibiotics tested (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Ceftazidime and Cefuroxime). No antibacterial activity was observed using the spot test. Activity was however noted using the agar well diffusion test against 4 different isolates representing 3 genera, one of which was the Gram negative Serratia marcescens, in addition to Bacillus sp and Staphylococcus aureus.
Conclusion: This study therefore reports on a strain of C. violaceum isolated from Rivers state which exhibits antibacterial activity not just against Gram positive bacteria but also against a Gram negative bacteria.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Agwu E., Ihongbe J.C., Okugun G.R.A., Ezeonwumelu J.O.C. and Igbinovia O. (2007). Chromobacterium violaceum associated with recurrent vaginal discharge among apparently healthy females in Ekpoma, Nigeria. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences. 6(1), 2.
Anah M.U., Udo J.J., Ochigbo S.O. and Abia-Bassey L.N. (2008). Neonatal septicaemia in Calabar, Nigeria. Tropical Doctor. 38(2), 126 – 128.
Aruldass C.A., Masalamany S.R.L., Venil, C.K. and Ahmad W.A. (2018). Antibacterial mode of action of violacein from Chromobacterium violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 25, 5164 – 5180.
Bassey I.U., Andy I.E., Unimke A.A. and Akpanke J. (2018). Hydrocarbon degrading potentials of Chromobacterium violaceum, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus isolated from lemna waste dumpsite, Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP). 8(11).
Bauer A.W., Kirby W.M., Sherris J.C. and Turck M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 45(4), 493 – 496.
Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District laboratory practice in tropical countries Part II. Cambridge University Press, UK.
Chikanka A.T. and Ogbonna D.N. (2019). Spatial distribution of bacterial isolates from different abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 19(4), 1 – 8.
Choi S.Y., Yoon K.H., Lee J.I. and Mitchell R.J. (2015). Violacein: properties and production of a versatile bacterial pigment. BioMed Research International. 2015, p465056.
Cowan, S.T. and Steel, K.J. (1985) Manual for the identification of medical bacteria, 4th edition. London: Cambridge University Press, UK.
Dall'Agnol L.T., Martins R.N., Vallinoto A.C. and Ribeiro K.T. (2008). Diversity of Chromobacterium violaceum isolates from aquatic environments of state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 103(7), 678 – 682.
Dibua N.A., Chukwura E.I. and Chude C.O. (2020). Evaluation of different salts and heavy metal concentrations on bacterial biofilm from selected surface and borehole water samples, Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology. 6(2), 11 – 17.
Duran N. and Menck C.F, (2001). Chromobacterium violaceum : A review of pharmacological and industrial perspectives. Critical Review of Microbiology. 27, 201 – 222. 10.1080/20014091096747
Duran N., Justo G.Z., Ferreira C.V., Melo P.S., Cordi L. and Martins D. (2007). Violacein: properties and biological activities. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 48(3), 127 – 133.
Duran M., Faljoni-Alario A. and Durán N. (2010). Chromobacterium violaceum and its important metabolites. Folia Microbiologica. 55(6), 535 – 547.
Goh T.K., Wong S.Y., Ismail N.I. and Teo K.C. (2014). Isolation and characterization of Chromobacterium violaceum from a disused tin-mining lake in Malaysia. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 8(35), 3255 – 3264.
Hungria M., Astolfi?Filho S., Chueire L.M., Nicolás M.F., Santos E.B., Bulbol M.R., Souza?Filho A., Nogueira Assuncao E., Germano M.G. and Vasconcelos A.T. (2005). Genetic characterization of Chromobacterium isolates from black water environments in the Brazilian Amazon. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 41(1), 17 – 23.
Khameneh B., Iranshahy M., Soheili V. and Bazzaz B.S. (2019). Review on plant antimicrobials: A mechanistic viewpoint. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 8(1), 118.
Kumar M.R. (2012). Chromobacterium violaceum: A rare bacterium isolated from a wound over the scalp. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research, 2(1), 70 – 72.
Lima-Bittencourt C.I., Astolfi-Filho S., Chartone-Souza E., Santos F.R. and Nascimento A.M. (2007). Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems. BMC Microbiology. 7(1): 58.
Nakamura Y., Asada C. and Sawada T. (2003). Production of antibacterial violet pigment by psychrotropic bacterium RT102 strain. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 8, 37–40.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility tests; Approved standard. 7th ed. M2-A7. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, PA; 2000.
Olalekan A., Itua F., Mutiu B., Egwuatu T., Akinloye O. and Iwalokun B. (2019). Case Report on Pleural Empyema Thoracis and Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Chromobacterium violaceum from Lagos, Nigeria. Case Reports in Medicine. 7:2019. Article ID 5321484
Pauer H., Hardoim C.C.P., Teixeira F.L., Miranda K.R., Barbirato D.D.S., Carvalho D.P.D., Antunes L.C., Leitão Á.A., Lobo L.A. and Domingues R.M. (2018). Impact of violacein from Chromobacterium violaceum on the mammalian gut microbiome. PLoS One. 13(9), e0203748.
Rajalakshmi G., Sankaravadivoo A. and Prabhakaran S. (2011). Characterization of Chromobacterium violaceum isolated from spoiled vegetables and antibiogram of violacein. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology. 2(1), 18 – 22.
Theuretzbacher U. and Piddock L.J. (2019). Non-traditional antibacterial therapeutic options and challenges. Cell Host and Microbe. 26(1), 61 – 72.
Uba B.N. and Eze A. (2004). Incidence of Chromobacterium violaceum in borehole water in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA. 53(6), 433 – 439.
Ugochukwu S., Giwa F.J. and Giwa A. (2015). Bacteriological evaluation of sampled sachet water sold in Samaru-Zaria, Kaduna-State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences. 12(1), 6 – 12.
Venegas F.A., Köllisch G., Mark K., Diederich W.E., Kaufmann A., Bauer S., Chavarría M., Araya J.J. and García-Piñeres A.J. (2019). The bacterial product violacein exerts an immunostimulatory effect via TLR8. Scientific Reports. 9(1), 1 – 7.
Vishnu T.S. and Palaniswamy M. (2016). Isolation and identification of Chromobacterium sp. from different ecosystems. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 9, 253 – 257.